A simultaneous , zero-sum game , it has only two possible outcomes: A player who decides to play rock will beat another player who has chosen scissors "rock crushes scissors" or sometimes "blunts scissors"  , but will lose to one who has played paper "paper covers rock" ; a play of paper will lose to a play of scissors "scissors cuts paper". If both players choose the same shape, the game is tied and is usually immediately replayed to break the tie. The type of game originated in China and spread with increased contact with East Asia, while developing different variants in signs over time.
Other names for the game in the English-speaking world include roshambo and other orderings of the three items, with "rock" sometimes being called "stone".
Rock—paper—scissors is often used as a fair choosing method between two people, similar to coin flipping , drawing straws , or throwing dice in order to settle a dispute or make an unbiased group decision. Unlike truly random selection methods, however, rock—paper—scissors can be played with a degree of skill by recognizing and exploiting non-random behavior in opponents.
The players usually count aloud to three, or speak the name of the game e. They then "throw" by extending it towards their opponent. Variations include a version where players use only three counts before throwing their gesture thus throwing on the count of "Scissors! Li Rihua 's book Note of Liuyanzhai also mentions this game, calling it shoushiling t. Throughout Japanese history there are frequent references to sansukumi-ken , meaning ken fist games where "the three who are afraid of one another" i. Kitsune-ken , unlike mushi-ken or rock—paper—scissors, is played by making gestures with both hands.
By the early 20th century, rock—paper—scissors had spread beyond Asia, especially through increased Japanese contact with the west. In Britain in it was described in a letter to The Times as a hand game, possibly of Mediterranean origin, called "zhot". In La Vie au patronage , a children's magazine in France, described it in detail,  referring to it as a "jeu japonais" "Japanese game".
Its French name, "Chi-fou-mi", is based on the Old Japanese words for "one, two, three" "hi, fu, mi". A New York Times article of on the Tokyo rush hour describes the rules of the game for the benefit of American readers, suggesting it was not at that time widely known in the U. It is impossible to gain an advantage over a truly random opponent. However, by exploiting the weaknesses of non-random opponents, it is possible to gain a significant advantage.
In tournament play, some players employ tactics to confuse or trick the other player into making an illegal move, resulting in a loss. One such tactic is to shout the name of one move before throwing another, in order to misdirect and confuse their opponent. During tournaments, players often prepare their sequence of three gestures prior to the tournament's commencement. The "rock" move, in particular, is notable in that it is typically represented by a closed fist—often identical to the fist made by players during the initial countdown.
If a player is attempting to beat their opponent based on quickly reading their hand gesture as the players are making their moves, it is possible to determine if the opponent is about to throw "rock" based on their lack of hand movement, as both "scissors" and "paper" require the player to reposition their hand. This can likewise be used to deceive an anticipating opponent by keeping one's fist closed until the last possible second, leading them to believe that you are about to throw "rock".
As a consequence of rock—paper—scissors programming contests, many strong algorithms have emerged. The optimal strategy or metastrategy is chosen based on past performance. The main strategies it employs are history matching, frequency analysis, and random guessing. Its strongest strategy, history matching, searches for a sequence in the past that matches the last few moves in order to predict the next move of the algorithm.
In frequency analysis, the program simply identifies the most frequently played move. The random guess is a fallback method that is used to prevent a devastating loss in the event that the other strategies fail.
More than ten years later, the top performing strategies on an ongoing rock—paper—scissors programming competition similarly use metastrategies. Using a high-speed camera the robot recognizes within one millisecond which shape the human hand is making, then produces the corresponding winning shape.
In , American federal judge Gregory Presnell from the Middle District of Florida ordered opposing sides in a lengthy court case to settle a trivial but lengthily debated point over the appropriate place for a deposition using the game of rock—paper—scissors. Instead, the Court will fashion a new form of alternative dispute resolution, to wit: If counsel cannot agree on a neutral site, they shall meet on the front steps of the Sam M.
Courthouse, North Florida Ave. Each lawyer shall be entitled to be accompanied by one paralegal who shall act as an attendant and witness. At that time and location, counsel shall engage in one 1 game of "rock, paper, scissors. The public release of this judicial order, widely circulated among area lawyers, [ citation needed ] was seemingly intended to shame the respective law firms regarding their litigation conduct by settling the dispute in a farcical manner.
Both firms made elaborate proposals, but neither was persuasive enough to earn Hashiyama's approval. The houses were unable to reach a decision. Hashiyama told the two firms to play rock—paper—scissors to decide who would get the rights to the auction, explaining that "it probably looks strange to others, but I believe this is the best way to decide between two things which are equally good". The auction houses had a weekend to come up with a choice of move. Christie's went to the year-old twin daughters of the international director of Christie's Impressionist and Modern Art Department Nicholas Maclean, who suggested "scissors" because "Everybody expects you to choose 'rock'.
In Japan, researchers have taught chimpanzees to play rock—paper—scissors. In many games, it is common for a group of possible choices to interact in a rock—paper—scissors style, where each selection is strong against a particular choice, but weak against another.
Such mechanics can make a game somewhat self-balancing, and prevent gameplay from being overwhelmed by a single dominant strategy. Many card-based video games in Japan use the rock—paper—scissors system as their core fighting system, with the winner of each round being able to carry out their designated attack.
Sega Master System 's Alex Kidd in Miracle World has a level where the player has to win a rock-paper-scissors game to go ahead. Others use simple variants of rock—paper—scissors as subgames like Mario Party Advance and Paper Mario: The common side-blotched lizard Uta stansburiana exhibits a rock—paper—scissors pattern in its mating strategies.
Of its three color types of males, "orange beats blue, blue beats yellow, and yellow beats orange" in competition for females, which is similar to the rules of rock-paper-scissors. Some bacteria also exhibit a rock-paper-scissors dynamic when they engage in antibiotic production.
The theory for this finding was demonstrated by computer simulation and in the laboratory by Benjamin Kerr, working at Stanford University with Brendan Bohannan. Rock—paper—scissors is the subject of continued research in bacterial ecology and evolution. It is considered one of the basic applications of game theory and non-linear dynamics to bacteriology. Starting in , the World Rock Paper Scissors Society standardized a set of rules for international play  and has overseen annual International World Championships.
These open, competitive championships have been widely attended by players from around the world and have attracted widespread international media attention. Richard Daynes Appreciation Society won the team event. There was also a team contest for 16 teams. A Belfast man won the competition. The international tournament was held in London British team captain Tom Wilkinson commented "after a whitewash of hot favorites Vatican City we thought we had it. A simple lapse of concentration lost it for us, but we are happy with our bronze medal. We'll come back from this and look to take the title back again next year.
The support was immense, and we are thankful of everyone who came out to support us".
The game is based on the classic children's game rock—paper—scissors where four players are paired to compete in the three-round segment. In the first round, the first pair plays against each other until one player wins three times. The next pair then plays against each other in the second round. The winners from the first two rounds then compete against each other to finally determine the ultimate winner.
The winner of the game then moves on to the final round. In the final round, the player is presented with several Dabarkads, each holding different amounts of cash prize. The player will then pick three Dabarkads who he or she will play rock—paper—scissors against. The player plays against them one at a time. If the player wins against any of the Eat Bulaga!
Players have developed numerous cultural and personal variations on the game, from simply playing the same game with different objects, to expanding into more weapons and rules, to giving their own name to the game in their national language.
In Korea, a two-player upgraded version exists by the name muk-jji-ppa. The loser of each round removes an article of clothing.
The game is a minor part of porn culture in Japan and other Asian countries after the influence of TV variety shows and Soft On Demand. In the Philippines , the game is called jak-en-poy , from one of the Japanese names of the game, transliterated as jan-ken-pon. In a longer version of the game, a four-line song is sung, with hand gestures displayed at the end of each or the final line: A shorter version of the game uses the chant "Bato-bato-pick" "Rock-rock-pick [i. A multiple player variation can be played: Players stand in a circle and all throw at once. If rock, paper, and scissors are all thrown, it is a stalemate, and they rethrow.
If only two throws are present, all players with the losing throw are eliminated. Play continues until only the winner remains. In the Malaysian version of the game, "scissors" is replaced by "bird," represented with the finger tips of five fingers brought together to form a beak. The open palm represents water.
Bird beats water by drinking it ; stone beats bird by hitting it ; and stone loses to water because it sinks in it. Singapore also has a related hand-game called "ji gu pa," where "ji" refers to the bird gesture, "gu" refers to the stone gesture, and "pa" refers to the water gesture.
The game is played by two players using both hands. At the same time, they both say, ji gu pa! That ain't scissors paper rock I hvae to add my prefered order to the list of permutations thus far. That was a game from South Park in which the contestants would kick each other as hard as possible where it mattered most. The loser was the one to opt out first I prefer this story anyway. It was also a corresponding verb "I'll rochambeau you for it". Does anyone else call 'Tic tac toe' 'noughts and crosses'? Nice blog by the way. I found you today through languagehat.
There are a bunch of games called rochambeau , some of which involve the infliction of pain. Welcome to SbaCL, aidhoss! I'd have chosen the name 'Hoss' for these comments as it's my usual handle, but someone possibly someone called Hoss appears to have beaten me to it. A safe, hospitable and utterly inoffensive nation, a part of the commonwealth, yet not inhabited by the descendants of criminals It also had a verb, to siz, e.
The BrEng name for the game sound infinitely more logical. I know I'm about 2 years late on this one, but I feel like adding my two bits anyway. However, most other people I know say it in RPS order. I've heard "naughts and crosses" before, but it was when I was quite young, and mistakenly interpreted it as "knots and crosses" which, I suppose, still makes more sense than tic-tac-toe.
And yes, i know Tic-Tac-Toe as noughts and crosses. Isn't tic tac toe where you only make the first three noughts and crosses moves each, with moveable pieces, and then move your pieces in turn only horizontally , then vertically until someone gets a line? I've never heard of such a thing. In AmE, tic-tac-toe is just the normal name for what 'noughts and crosses' is in BrE. I don't know why but I've always said Paper Rock Scissors. I have yet to see any say they do as well.
Maybe I do it because honestly, if you say it, just say it PRS it flows off the tongue so much smoother, no? The ending "r" connects so fluidly with the "R" in Rock. I doubt I'll break anyone's long usage. I try to "correct" kids to my way to no avail. I played as a child and still now with my kids. I always said scis,saz,brick haven't a clue why. Does anyone else knows this version. I am in the north west of england,Manchester,UK but have Irish heritage I have a question about the word scissors that I'm hoping you can answer.
If I say, 'Do you have any scissors? It might not even be a New York thing. Maybe it's just a your-husband thing! From Texas, lived in NYC from Keeping with the game theme I started last time Over on the American Dialect Society e-mail list , a conversation has come up about that hand-shape game in which a fist beats a 'V' sign, a flat hand beats a fist, and a 'V' sign beats a flat hand. You, of course, know what I mean having read the title , but it's called a lot of different things.