In the great British physicist Roger Penrose put forward a vision of a universe composed of three independently existing worlds — mathematics, the material world and human consciousness. As Penrose acknowledged, it was a complete puzzle to him how the three interacted with one another outside the ability of any scientific or other conventionally rational model. How can physical atoms and molecules, for example, create something that exists in a separate domain that has no physical existence: This mystery is the same one that existed in the Greek worldview of Plato, who believed that abstract ideas above all mathematical first existed outside any physical reality.
The material world that we experience as part of our human existence is an imperfect reflection of these prior formal ideals. As I would say, mathematics is operating in a god-like fashion. The workings of human consciousness are similarly miraculous. Like the laws of mathematics, consciousness has no physical presence in the world; the images and thoughts in our consciousness have no measurable dimensions.
Yet, our nonphysical thoughts somehow mysteriously guide the actions of our physical human bodies. This is no more scientifically explicable than the mysterious ability of nonphysical mathematical constructions to determine the workings of a separate physical world. Until recently, the scientifically unfathomable quality of human consciousness inhibited the very scholarly discussion of the subject. Since the s, however, it has become a leading area of inquiry among philosophers.
Recognizing that he could not reconcile his own scientific materialism with the existence of a nonphysical world of human consciousness, a leading atheist, Daniel Dennett , in took the radical step of denying that consciousness even exists.
As an atheist, Nagel does not offer religious belief as an alternative, but I would argue that the supernatural character of the workings of human consciousness adds grounds for raising the probability of the existence of a supernatural god. Evolution is a contentious subject in American public life. As I say in my book, I should emphasize that I am not questioning the reality of natural biological evolution. What is interesting to me, however, are the fierce arguments that have taken place between professional evolutionary biologists.
A number of developments in evolutionary theory have challenged traditional Darwinist — and later neo-Darwinist — views that emphasize random genetic mutations and gradual evolutionary selection by the process of survival of the fittest. A number of scientists, such as Francis Collins , director of the U. For my part, the most recent developments in evolutionary biology have increased the probability of a god.
For the past 10, years at a minimum, the most important changes in human existence have been driven by cultural developments occurring in the realm of human ideas.
In the Axial Age commonly dated from to B. The development of the scientific method in the 17th century in Europe and its modern further advances have had at least as great a set of world-transforming consequences. There have been many historical theories , but none capable, I would argue, of explaining as fundamentally transformational a set of events as the rise of the modern world. The following arguments deduce, mostly through self-contradiction, the existence of a God as "the Creator". Some arguments focus on the existence of specific conceptions of God as being omniscient, omnipotent, and morally perfect.
I contend that we are both atheists. I just believe in one fewer god than you do. When you understand why you dismiss all the other possible gods, you will understand why I dismiss yours. Similar to the subjective arguments for the existence of God, subjective arguments against the supernatural mainly rely on the testimony or experience of witnesses, or the propositions of a revealed religion in general. Atheistic Hindu doctrines cite various arguments for rejecting a creator God or Ishvara. It is also argued in this text that the existence of Ishvara God cannot be proved and hence cannot be admitted to exist.
For instance, it argues that an unchanging God cannot be the source of an ever-changing world. It says God is a necessary metaphysical assumption demanded by circumstances. The Sankhya- tattva-kaumudi , commenting on Karika 57, argues that a perfect God can have no need to create a world, and if God's motive is kindness, Samkhya questions whether it is reasonable to call into existence beings who while non-existent had no suffering.
Samkhya postulates that a benevolent deity ought to create only happy creatures, not an imperfect world like the real world. They argue that there is no need to postulate a maker for the world, just as there is no need for an author to compose the Vedas or a god to validate the rituals. In that regard, the power of the mantras is what is seen as the power of gods. Several authors have offered psychological or sociological explanations for belief in the existence of God.
Psychologists observe that the majority of humans often ask existential questions such as "why we are here" and whether life has purpose. William James emphasized the inner religious struggle between melancholy and happiness, and pointed to trance as a cognitive mechanism. Sigmund Freud stressed fear and pain, the need for a powerful parental figure, the obsessional nature of ritual, and the hypnotic state a community can induce as contributing factors to the psychology of religion. Pascal Boyer 's Religion Explained , based in part on his anthropological field work, treats belief in God as the result of the brain's tendency towards agency detection.
Boyer suggests that, because of evolutionary pressures, humans err on the side of attributing agency where there isn't any. In Boyer's view, belief in supernatural entities spreads and becomes culturally fixed because of their memorability. The concept of "minimally counterintuitive" beings that differ from the ordinary in a small number of ways such as being invisible, able to fly, or having access to strategic and otherwise secret information leave a lasting impression that spreads through word-of-mouth.
The Evolutionary Landscape of Religion makes a similar argument and adds examination of the socially coordinating aspects of shared belief. In Minds and Gods: The Cognitive Foundations of Religion , Todd Tremlin follows Boyer in arguing that universal human cognitive process naturally produces the concept of the supernatural.
Tremlin contends that an agency detection device ADD and a theory of mind module ToMM lead humans to suspect an agent behind every event. Natural events for which there is no obvious agent may be attributed to God c. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on God General conceptions. Ethical egoism Euthyphro dilemma Logical positivism Religious language Verificationism eschatological Problem of evil Theodicy Augustinian Irenaean Best of all possible worlds Inconsistent triad Natural evil. Criticism of religion Ethics in religion Exegesis Faith and rationality History of religions Political science of religion Religion and science Religious philosophy Theology.
Negative and positive atheism. For in depth analysis of the individual arguments, see unmoved mover , first cause , argument from contingency , argument from degree , or teleological argument. Humanistic Metaphysical Methodological Religious. Evolutionary psychology of religion. The Rationality of Theism quoting Quentin Smith "God is not 'dead' in academia; it returned to life in the late s".
They cite "the shift from hostility towards theism in Paul Edwards's Encyclopedia of Philosophy to sympathy towards theism in the more recent Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Canons of the First Vatican Council, 2: A Journey to the Heart of the Faith. The Doubleday Religious Publishing Group. The Nature of Necessity. Archived from the original on In this interpretation an atheist becomes: Let us, for future ready reference, introduce the labels 'positive atheist' for the former and 'negative atheist' for the latter.
The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. What is Agnostic Theism? Believing in God, but not Knowing God". Retrieved December 19, Belief in God in an Age of Science. The Probability of God by Stephen D. Unwin its criticism in The God Delusion , and the critical comment in that article.
A survey of Hinduism. State University of New York Press. The Hare Krishna movement: Part 1, Question 2, Article 3. Summa of the Summa. The Thought of Thomas Aquinas. Retrieved 16 June The Trace of God: A Rational Warrant for Belief 1 ed. Part 1, Question 2. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved October 12, A selection of writings and quotes of intelligent design supporters demonstrating this identification of the Christian god with the intelligent designer are found in the pdf Horse's Mouth Archived June 27, , at the Wayback Machine.
PDF by Brian Poindexter, dated The Alchemy of Happiness. Science and Christian Belief. The Challenge of the Qur'an". Is there a God? It was God who had revealed the truth about the coming destruction, and of the establishment of the heavenly world which would then follow. And it was God Himself who had given the sign that he, Dada, was to be His medium and the engine for creating such a divine world. Philosophy East and West. You can't explain the universe without God Mail Online".
Where is the Graveyard of Dead Gods? The six systems of Indian philosophy. Hinduism and Buddhism, Vol II. The perfectibility of human nature in eastern and western thought. Links to related articles. Arguments for and against the existence of God. Christianity Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism. Abrahamic prophecy Aggadah Denominations Kabbalah Philosophy. Eschatological verification Language game Logical positivism Apophatic theology Verificationism.
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Women in philosophy Sage philosophy. Religion portal Philosophy portal Atheism portal. Retrieved from " https: He performed miracles over nature People everywhere followed Jesus, because he constantly met their needs, doing the miraculous. He said if you do not want to believe what I'm telling you, you should at least believe in me based on the miracles you're seeing.
2 Before you look at the facts surrounding his existence, ask yourself, If God does exist, would I want to know him? Here then, are some reasons to consider. I never expected to become someone who believed in God. about God's willingness to help me with my struggles, or indeed if He really existed at all. I found.
Jesus Christ showed God to be gentle, loving, aware of our self-centeredness and shortcomings, yet deeply wanting a relationship with us. Jesus revealed that although he views us as sinners, worthy of his punishment, his love for us ruled and he came up with a different plan. God himself took on the form of man and accepted the punishment for our sin on our behalf.
Perhaps, but many loving fathers would gladly trade places with their child in a cancer ward if they could. The Bible says that the reason we would love God is because he first loved us. Jesus died in our place so we could be forgiven. Of all the religions known to humanity, only through Jesus will you see God reaching toward humanity, providing a way for us to have a relationship with him. Jesus proves a divine heart of love, meeting our needs, drawing us to himself. Because of Jesus' death and resurrection, he offers us a new life today.
We can be forgiven, fully accepted by God and genuinely loved by God. He says, "I have loved you with an everlasting love, therefore I have continued my faithfulness to you.
If you want to know, investigate Jesus Christ. We're told that "God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. God does not force us to believe in him, though he could. Instead, he has provided sufficient proof of his existence for us to willingly respond to him. The earth's perfect distance from the sun, the unique chemical properties of water, the human brain, DNA, the number of people who attest to knowing God, the gnawing in our hearts and minds to determine if God is there, the willingness for God to be known through Jesus Christ.
If you need to know more about Jesus and reasons to believe in him, please see: This is your decision, no coercion here. But if you want to be forgiven by God and come into a relationship with him, you can do so right now by asking him to forgive you and come into your life. Jesus said, "Behold, I stand at the door [of your heart] and knock. He who hears my voice and opens the door, I will come into him [or her]. You know my life and that I need to be forgiven. I ask you to forgive me right now and come into my life. I want to know you in a real way.
Come into my life now. Thank you that you wanted a relationship with me. God views your relationship with him as permanent.
Referring to all those who believe in him, Jesus Christ said of us, "I know them, and they follow me; and I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish, and no one shall snatch them out of my hand. Looking at all these facts, one can conclude that a loving God does exist and can be known in an intimate, personal way.
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